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All Oregon physicians, other health care providers and laboratorians are required by law to report certain diseases and conditions to local health departments (pdf) Some cases are subject to restrictions (OAR Division 19) on school attendance, day care attendance, patient care, and food handling. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is global health threat. The causes and contributors to AMR vary, but include selective pressures by the overuse of antibiotics, genetic elements and substandard infection prevention and control practices. Infection Disease and Health is primarily concerned with the prevention and control of infections in human health.


In this, the first virtual special issue of the journal, we have compiled a selection of articles that are related to one of the biggest challenges of our time - AMR. The articles included in this special issue include a broad range of topics, from antimicrobial stewardship, knowledge and attitudes towards antibiotics, prescribing practices and cost. Articles cover a diverse range of health settings, including hospitals, general practice and broader public health considerations. The special issue provides a great example of how the journal serves as an important platform for health research and uniquely contributes to the infection prevention and control agenda internationally.



This form of chelation therapy includes the usage of an IV apparatus and EDTA that is a widely used abbreviation for the chemical compound ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. EDTA, the chelation agent, not only helps to clean the harmful substances such as lead, uranium, nickel and calcium deposited in the arterial wall but also improves circulation, enhances the immune system and inhibits the creation of free radical.


With the slow flow of EDTA from the bottle through the IV and finally into the patient's vein and bloodstream results in turning back the clock for many potential heart disease victims. Chelation therapy is not only helpful as an attractive alternative to bypass surgery, but also has the ability to improve the function of the brain, since this form of therapy is especially helpful in treating arterial blockage in the upper body.

A working group of CDNA was convened in 2001 to revise and develop standard surveillance case definitions for all nationally notifiable diseases for reporting to the NNDSS.
The surveillance case definitions were progressively developed through a consensus approach over a number of years. The Case Definitions Working Group currently comprises members representing all jurisdictions and the Australian Government Department of Health, the Public Health Laboratory Network, OzFoodNet, the Kirby Institute, the National Centre for Immunisation Research and Surveillance and other communicable disease experts. Laboratory case definitions previously developed by the Public Health Laboratory Network formed the basis for the surveillance case definitions, with clinical and epidemiological elements added, as appropriate.

Wrong types or levels of good and bad bacteria in the gut, or intestinal dysbiosis, may contribute to this process of abnormal stimulation of the immune system. Research supports the strong possibility that such stimulation may be accentuated by interaction of the bacteria with food lectins. It is believed by some that this may further worsen gut injury and autoimmune disease. This latter concept is gaining acceptance and recognition by doctors in one form as the hygiene theory. It is speculated that our gut bacteria have become altered by increased hygiene and over use of antibiotics and that this phenomenon may be playing a significant role in the rising incidence of autoimmune diseases such as diabetes, arthritis, and chronic intestinal diseases like Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases - responsible for prevention and control of five reportable sexually transmitted diseases; coordinates the state's public health response to the STD epidemic including reporting, surveillance, epidemiologic interviewing and investigation, screening, testing, treatment, partner referral and partner services.
The five reportable sexually transmitted diseases are chancroid, Chlamydia trachomatis infection, gonorrhea, sexually transmitted pelvic inflammatory disease, and syphilis. Statewide educational efforts are provided to reduce risky sexual behavior and the risk of infection, and re-infection with sexually transmitted diseases. Section staff provide consultation and technical assistance to local health departments and private health care providers on testing, diagnosis, treatment, and epidemiologic interviewing and investigation of patients, sex partners, and other at-risk individuals infected with or exposed to sexually transmitted diseases.

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